• Ketone bodies are “the killers” being responsible for all subsequent negative effects (oxidative stress/ oxygen radicals)

  • Early detection and interference are key to prevent clinical effects and economical losses caused by ketone bodies! Go and check your dry cows’ feed intake and BCS on regular scale

  • Undetected subclinical ketosis can also lead to cellular damages, immunosuppression and in consequence increased incidence of secondary diseases e.g. mastitis, metritis and ketosis Go and check regularly blood BHBA levels of your fresh cows!

  • Did you ever wonder about your poor first service conception rates? SCK could be one of the causes you can fix to improve reproductive outcome.

  • Did you already know? Latest investigations reveal a strong correlation between excessive loss of BCS and increased risk of lameness. Go for our updated BCS Cowdition App to get in control of your herd.

  • Negative impact of (subclinical) ketosis on milk yields and subsequent diseases still seems to be underestimated Take your time to make a cost-benefit calculation

Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis is the limiting factor of glucose availability in early lactation.

Feeding a high proportion of easily digestible carbohydrates promotes gluconeogenesis. It stimulates the production of propionate in the rumen, the most important glucoplastic substrate 2.

Pharmacologically, propionate production in the forestomach can also be promoted by oral administration of ionophore antibiotics 7 or certain essential oils 13. The use of monensin is regulated in the EU and allowed only in animals at risk of ketosis and on veterinary prescription.

Glucoplastic substrates such as propionate, propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol) or glycerin are added to the feed for the prevention of ketosis or administered in cases of ketosis as a drench. The further conversion of these glucoplastic substrates to glucose can be improved by supplementing vitamin B12 and biotin, which act as cofactors of important gluconeogenetic enzymes (B12: methylmalonyl-CoA mutase 9, biotin: propionyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase 26). Cows treated with Butaphosphan & Vitamin B12 showed a significant reduction of β‑hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations compared to their placebo-treated counterparts 78.

Glucocorticoids have little impact on gluconeogenesis in cattle, but exert a positive effect by limiting glucose uptake and utilization of certain tissues (glucose-sparing effect) 14.

Increase of the availability of glucose precursor molecules

  • Starch-rich diets
  • Ionophore antibiotics (monensin)
  • Essential oils
  • Propionate
  • Propylene glycol
  • Glycerin
  • Amino acids

Stimulation of gluconeogenesis enzymes

  • Vitamin B12 (+phosphorus)
  • Biotin
  • Glucocorticoids

* see also our references page