• Ketone bodies are “the killers” being responsible for all subsequent negative effects (oxidative stress/ oxygen radicals)

  • Early detection and interference are key to prevent clinical effects and economical losses caused by ketone bodies! Go and check your dry cows’ feed intake and BCS on regular scale

  • Undetected subclinical ketosis can also lead to cellular damages, immunosuppression and in consequence increased incidence of secondary diseases e.g. mastitis, metritis and ketosis Go and check regularly blood BHBA levels of your fresh cows!

  • Did you ever wonder about your poor first service conception rates? SCK could be one of the causes you can fix to improve reproductive outcome.

  • Did you already know? Latest investigations reveal a strong correlation between excessive loss of BCS and increased risk of lameness. Go for our updated BCS Cowdition App to get in control of your herd.

  • Negative impact of (subclinical) ketosis on milk yields and subsequent diseases still seems to be underestimated Take your time to make a cost-benefit calculation

Impairment of fertility


  • Returned delay to cyclic activity due to reduced GnRH and LH pulsatility, which is essential for follicular development and ovulation 59


  • follicles developing during NEB showed a reduced sensitivity to circulating LH leading to reduced estradiol production 59, 60, 61
  • an increased concentration of BHBA in follicular fluid impaired the developmental potential of oocytes, thus coupled with poor CL formation and function increasing the risk of embryo death 62, 63
  • SCK and clinical ketosis are associated with reduced intensity and duration of estrus activity 64, 65
  • Cows in NEB with increased blood BHBA in early lactation showed an increased calving to first service interval of 10 d compared to nonaffected counterparts 61

Since elevated BHBA during NEB occurs mostly concomitantly with other metabolic and endocrine changes (e.g. re-initiation of cyclic ovarian activity) some of the effects observed may not be exclusively ascribed to ketone bodies 48.

* see also our references page