Impairment of fertility

Central

  • Returned delay to cyclic activity due to reduced GnRH and LH pulsatility, which is essential for follicular development and ovulation 59

Peripheral

  • follicles developing during NEB showed a reduced sensitivity to circulating LH leading to reduced estradiol production 59, 60, 61
  • an increased concentration of BHBA in follicular fluid impaired the developmental potential of oocytes, thus coupled with poor CL formation and function increasing the risk of embryo death 62, 63
  • SCK and clinical ketosis are associated with reduced intensity and duration of estrus activity 64, 65
  • Cows in NEB with increased blood BHBA in early lactation showed an increased calving to first service interval of 10 d compared to nonaffected counterparts 61

Since elevated BHBA during NEB occurs mostly concomitantly with other metabolic and endocrine changes (e.g. re-initiation of cyclic ovarian activity) some of the effects observed may not be exclusively ascribed to ketone bodies 48.

* see also our references page

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