• Ketone bodies are “the killers” being responsible for all subsequent negative effects (oxidative stress/ oxygen radicals)

  • Early detection and interference are key to prevent clinical effects and economical losses caused by ketone bodies! Go and check your dry cows’ feed intake and BCS on regular scale

  • Undetected subclinical ketosis can also lead to cellular damages, immunosuppression and in consequence increased incidence of secondary diseases e.g. mastitis, metritis and ketosis Go and check regularly blood BHBA levels of your fresh cows!

  • Did you ever wonder about your poor first service conception rates? SCK could be one of the causes you can fix to improve reproductive outcome.

  • Did you already know? Latest investigations reveal a strong correlation between excessive loss of BCS and increased risk of lameness. Go for our updated BCS Cowdition App to get in control of your herd.

  • Negative impact of (subclinical) ketosis on milk yields and subsequent diseases still seems to be underestimated Take your time to make a cost-benefit calculation

Immunological Impact

Immunological Impact

Elevated BHBA during NEB occurs mostly concomitantly with other metabolic changes, like low plasma glucose and elevated NEFA concentrations, so some immunosuppressive effects cannot be exclusively ascribed to ketone bodies 48.

In-vitro

Elevation of plasma BHBA concentration

  • decreased chemotactic capacity of bovine blood leukocytes 49
  • decreased respiratory burst activity of bovine neutrophils 50
  • decreased phagocytotic activity of milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) 51
  • inhibit lymphocyte blastogenesis, oxidative burst and IgM secretion 52, 53

In-vivo

High plasma BHBA concentration

  • has a negative influence on the susceptibility of mastitis, course and severity of disease 54, 55
  • reduced cytokine production after bacterial infection 56
  • caused a heightened immune response in the form of increased lymphocytes counts, increasing stimulative properties of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a positive linear correlation between the inflammatory marker haptoglobin (Hp) and increased values of BHB 57, 58

* see also our references page